To participate in
the UFAC Voluntary Action Program, upholstered furniture manufacturers must
agree to produce their furniture in accordance with the basic UFAC
construction criteria. In order to identify component materials which meet
the UFAC requirements, a test method is needed to define acceptable
performance in each criterion.
This test method is
intended to define the minimum performance level for barrier materials to be
used between Class II cover fabrics and conventional polyurethane foam in
horizontal seating surfaces. No consideration is given in this test
methodology to such necessary attributes as flex life, longevity and
maintenance of aesthetics.
horizontal panels are assembled on a small-scale test assembly using UFAC
Standard polyurethane foam as the substrate. The Standard UFAC Type II cover
fabric is used as the covering. The barrier material to be tested is placed
between the cover fabric and the polyurethane substrate in both vertical and
horizontal panels. A lighted cigarette is placed in the crevice formed by
the abutment of vertical and horizontal panels and a piece of sheeting
material is used to cover the cigarette. The cigarette is allowed to burn
its entire length unless an obvious ignition occurs. Test observations and
measurements are recorded. A minimum of three individual specimens is
required for each barrier material sample tested.
Continuous, self-sustaining smoldering combustion of upholstered furniture
substrates after exposure to burning cigarettes.
IGNITION: Pronounced continuous and self-sustaining combustion of the
test system. Determination is a matter of operator judgment based upon
experience in this type of testing.
Barrier material being tested.
Individual piece of sample used in one test assembly.
of fabric which is destroyed or degraded from face to back, not including
the area which is only discolored by smoke.
V. TEST MATERIALS
SOURCE: The ignition source for all tests shall be cigarettes without
filter tips made from natural tobacco, 85 ± 2 mm (3.3 ± 0.1 in) long and
with a packing density of 0.27 ± 0.02 g/cm3 (0.16 ± 0.01 oz/in3) and a
total weight of 1.1 ± 0.1 g (0.039 ± 0.004 oz).
- April 1, 1990
MATERIAL: 100% cotton bed sheeting material, weight 125 ± 28 g/m² (3.7
± 0.8 oz/yd² ), white in color, and not treated with flame retardants,
shall be used to cover test cigarettes. For testing, the fabric is cut
into squares 127 x 127 mm (5.0 x 5.0 in).
Cover fabric shall be 100% bright regular rayon, scoured, 20/2, ring spun,
basket weave construction, 271 ± 12 g/m² (8.0 ± 0.5 oz/yd²): UFAC Standard
Type II Cover Fabric. This material can be obtained from several
FOAM SUBSTRATE: Polyether type polyurethane foam which meets the
requirements of the UFAC Filling/Padding Components Test Method--1990,
containing no inorganic fillers or flame retardants, having a density of
24.0 ± 1.6 kg/m³ (1.5 ± 0.1 lb/ft³): UFAC Standard Polyurethane Foam. This
material can be obtained from several commercial sources.
be cut into pieces 203 x 203 x 51 mm (8.0 x 8.0 x 2.0 in) for vertical
panels and 127 x 203 x 51 mm (5.0 x 8.0 x 2.0 in) for horizontal panels.
Each panel shall
be hand crushed before use by wadding or balling up one time in the
The test room shall be draft protected and equipped with a suitable system
for exhausting smoke and noxious gases produced during testing.
EXTINGUISHER: A pressurized water fire extinguisher or other suitable
fire safety equipment shall be immediately available in the test room.
AND WATER BUCKET: A water bottle fitted with a spray nozzle shall be
provided to extinguish any ignited portions of the test apparatus or
components. A water bucket shall be provided for immersing smoldering or
burning materials removed from the test apparatus or components.
linear scale graduated in millimeters or tenths of an inch shall be used
to measure char length.
APPARATUS: In addition to the above enumerated items, straight pins, a
knife or scissors, a staple gun and staples, and tongs are required to
perform the testing.
holder shall consist of two wooden panels, each nominal 203 x 203 mm (8.0
x 8.0 in) and nominal 19 mm (0.75 in) thickness, joined together at one
edge. As shown in Figure I, a moveable horizontal panel support is
positioned on a centrally located guide.
TEST APPARATUS (Click here to
Place a vertical
barrier specimen over the face of each of the 203 x 203 x 51 mm (8.0 x 8.0
x 2.0 in) UFAC Standard Polyurethane Foam substrates. Over each, attach a
203 x 381 mm (8.0 x 15.0 in) piece of UFAC Standard Type II Cover Fabric
and fasten it in place with pins as shown. Place the assembled vertical
panels in the specimen holder.
five-inch dimension of each horizontal UFAC Standard Polyurethane Foam
substrate by an amount equal to 75% of the thickness of the barrier sample
being tested. This will prevent the formation of large air gaps under the
crevice in the assembled specimen holder. Place a horizontal barrier
specimen over each shortened piece of horizontal polyurethane substrate.
The top surface of the substrate must be completely covered, and the
specimen must continue over the crevice edge to partially cover the bottom
surface. Over the composite place the horizontal cover fabric 203 x 254 mm
(8.0 x 10.0 in) and fasten in place with pins. See Figure III.
April 1, 1990
PRECAUTIONS: THE GASEOUS PRODUCTS OF SMOLDERING COMBUSTION ARE TOXIC.
LARGE AMOUNTS OF CARBON MONOXIDE AND OTHER NOXIOUS GASES ARE PRODUCED BY
SMOLDERING ORGANIC MATTER. TESTS SHOULD BE CONDUCTED IN A FUME HOOD OR
ROOM PROVIDED WITH ADEQUATE MEANS FOR REMOVAL OF TOXIC FUMES.
All test specimens, cover fabrics and test materials (including
polyurethane, cigarettes and sheeting material) shall be conditioned at a
temperature of 21º ± 3º C (70º ± 4º F) and between 50% and 66% relative
humidity for at least four hours prior to testing. If the test room
conditions do not meet the specifications above for the conditioning room,
then testing must be initiated within ten minutes after the specimens are
removed from the conditioning room.
Zero airflow at the test surface is desirable, indicated by a minimum
vertical smoke plume of 152 mm (6.0 in). A draft-preventive enclosure to
restrict airflow to convection only is required. See Figure II.
specimen holder shall be placed on a table in the draft-preventive
enclosure. Light three cigarettes and place one cigarette on each of the
three test assemblies such that the cigarette lies in the crevice and
against the vertical panel, equally spaced from each side. Immediately
cover the cigarette with a piece of sheeting material, smoothing it over
the cigarette to insure intimate contact. A finger run over the covered
cigarette insures good fabric-to-cigarette contact. Pin top edge of
sheeting to the vertical panel approximately 50 mm (2.0 in) above the
is allowed to burn its entire length unless an obvious ignition occurs;
otherwise, the test is considered valid when either (1) a cigarette has
burned its entire length on each of the three individual test specimens
or (2) three cigarettes have self-extinguished on the sample. A
self-extinguished cigarette shall be replaced with a freshly lighted
cigarette and covered with sheeting until either (1) or (2) above are
met. Replacement cigarettes shall be located on an uncharred area of the
specimen or on a new test assembly.
If an obvious
ignition occurs on any one of the three specimens, extinguish the
smoldering materials, record the results of the test and test three
If no ignition
occurs, measure the maximum height of the char on the vertical panel
upward from the original crevice to the nearest 2 mm (0.1 in).
After removal of the
sheeting cigarette cover cloth, leave the assembly intact while making char
If all test
specimens have no ignition, or if the vertical char of each is less than
38 mm (1.5 in) upward from the crevice, the test material passes.
If one test
specimen has a vertical char equal to or greater than 38 mm (1.5 in), test
three additional specimens.
If all three
additional specimens have vertical char of less than 38 mm (1.5 in), the
additional specimen has a vertical char equal to or greater than 38 mm
(1.5 in), record a failure of the test material.
3- April 1, 1990
If two or more
original test specimens have a vertical char of 38 mm (1.5 in) or more,
record a failure of the test material.
This test procedure
is subject to review, modification, and improvement. Please submit any
suggestions, in writing, to:
HIGH POINT, NC 27261
A list of commercial
sources of standard test materials can be obtained from UFAC Central.
April 1, 1990