To participate in
the UFAC Voluntary Action Program, upholstered furniture manufacturers must
agree to produce their furniture in accordance with the basic UFAC
construction criteria. In order to identify component materials which meet
the UFAC requirements, a test method is needed to define acceptable
performance in each criterion.
This test method is
intended to determine the relative resistance to smoldering cigarettes of
deck padding materials used under loose cushions. Decking materials which
meet the acceptance criteria can be used in upholstered furniture bearing
the UFAC label. The materials covered by this test method include but are
not limited to:
Bonded fiber pads.
materials intended for use in decking under loose cushions.
Decking material to
be tested is cut to size for the test assembly and placed on the plywood
assembly base. The UFAC Standard Type II cover fabric is placed on the
decking sample, and a wooden retainer is placed on the fabric. Three
cigarettes are lighted and placed upon the device and covered with sheeting
fabric. The cigarettes are allowed to burn their full lengths unless an
obvious ignition occurs. The maximum char is measured from the cigarette and
Continuous, self-sustaining smoldering combustion of upholstered furniture
substrates after exposure to burning cigarettes.
IGNITION: Pronounced continuous and self-sustaining combustion of the
test system. Determination is a matter of operator judgment based upon
experience in this type of testing.
Decking material being tested.
Individual piece of sample used in one test assembly.
of fabric which is destroyed or degraded from face to back, not including
the area which is only discolored by smoke.
V. TEST MATERIALS
SOURCE: The ignition source for all tests shall be cigarettes without
filter tips made from natural tobacco, 85 ± 2 mm (3.3 ± 0.1 in) long and
with a packing density of
April 1, 1990
0.27 ± 0.02 g/cm3
(0.16 ± 0.01 oz/in3) and a total weight of 1.1 ± 0.1 g (0.039 ± 0.004 oz).
MATERIAL: 100% cotton bed sheeting material, weight 125 ± 28 g/m2 (3.7
± 0.8 oz/yd2), white in color, and not treated with flame retardants,
shall be used to cover test cigarettes. For testing, the fabric is cut
into squares 127 x 127 mm (5.0 x 5.0 in).
Cover fabric shall be 100% bright regular rayon, scoured, 20/2, ring spun,
basket weave construction, 271 ± 12 g/m2 (8.0 ± 0.5 oz/yd2): UFAC Standard
Type II Cover Fabric. This material can be obtained from several
The test room shall be draft protected and equipped with a suitable system
for exhausting smoke and noxious gases produced during testing.
EXTINGUISHER: A pressurized water fire extinguisher or other suitable
fire safety equipment shall be immediately available in the test room.
AND WATER BUCKET: A water bottle fitted with a spray nozzle shall be
provided to extinguish any ignited portions of the test apparatus or
components. A water bucket shall be provided for immersing smoldering or
burning materials removed from the test apparatus or components.
linear scale graduated in millimeters or tenths of an inch shall be used
to measure char length.
APPARATUS: In addition to the above-enumerated items, straight pins, a
knife or scissors, a staple gun and staples, and tongs are required to
perform the testing.
TEST APPARATUS (Click here to
For each deck
padding material to be tested, cut one specimen 343 x 533 mm (13.5 x 21.0
in) and at least 25.4 mm (1.0 in) in thickness.
thickness is less than 25.4 cm (1.0 in), multiple layers shall be used to
make up the required specimen thickness.
PRECAUTIONS: THE GASEOUS PRODUCTS OF SMOLDERING COMBUSTION ARE TOXIC.
LARGE AMOUNTS OF CARBON MONOXIDE AND OTHER NOXIOUS GASES ARE PRODUCED BY
SMOLDERING ORGANIC MATTER. TESTS SHOULD BE CONDUCTED IN A FUME HOOD OR
ROOM PROVIDED WITH ADEQUATE MEANS FOR REMOVAL OF TOXIC FUMES.
All test specimens, cover fabrics and test materials (including
polyurethane, cigarettes and sheeting material) shall be conditioned at a
temperature of 21º ± 3º C (70º ± 4º F) and between 50% and 66% relative
humidity for at least four hours prior to testing. If the test room
conditions do not meet the specifications above for the conditioning room,
then testing must be initiated within ten minutes after the specimens are
removed from the conditioning room.
April 1, 1990
Zero airflow at the test surface is desirable, indicated by a minimum
vertical smoke plume of 152 mm (6.0 in). A draft-preventive enclosure to
restrict airflow to convection only is required. See Figure II.
specimen holder shall be placed on a table in the draft-preventive
enclosure. Light three cigarettes and place them on the test assembly so
that they are equally spaced from each other and the retainer ring.
Immediately cover each cigarette with a piece of sheeting material,
smoothing it over the cigarette to insure intimate contact.
is allowed to burn its entire length unless an obvious ignition occurs;
otherwise, the test is considered valid when either (1) a cigarette has
burned its entire length on each of the three individual test specimens
or (2) three cigarettes have self-extinguished on the sample. A
self-extinguished cigarette shall be replaced with a freshly lighted
cigarette and covered with sheeting until either (1) or (2) above are
met. Replacement cigarettes shall be located on an uncharted area of the
specimen or on a new test assembly.
If an obvious
ignition of the substrate material occurs on any one of the three
specimens, extinguish the smoldering materials, record the results of
the test and test three additional specimens.
If no ignition
occurs, measure and record the maximum char length from the cigarette to
the nearest 2 mm (0.1 inch).
After removal of
sheeting cigarette cover cloth, leave the assembly intact while making char
If all test
specimens have no ignition, or if no char of 38 mm (1.5 in) is obtained in
the Type II cover fabric, the test material passes.
If one test
specimen has a char equal to or greater than 38 mm (1.5 in), test three
If all three
additional specimens have a char of less than 38 mm (1.5 in), the
additional specimen has a char equal to or greater than 38 mm (1.5 in),
record a failure of the test material.
If two or more
original test specimens have a char of 38 mm (1.5 in) or more, record a
failure of the test material.
This test procedure
is subject to review, modification, and improvement. Please submit any
suggestions, in writing, to:
HIGH POINT, NC 27261
A list of commercial
sources of standard test materials can be obtained from UFAC Central.
April 1, 1990