To participate in
the UFAC Voluntary Action Program, upholstered furniture manufacturers must
agree to produce their furniture in accordance with the basic UFAC
construction criteria. In order to identify component materials which meet
the UFAC requirements, a test method is needed to define acceptable
performance in each criterion.
This test method is
designed to determine those slab or garneted filling/padding components
which exhibit sufficient resistance to smoldering cigarette ignition to meet
the UFAC construction criteria. The materials covered by this test method
include, but are not limited to:
natural and man-made fibers.
Foamed or cellular
filling or cushioning materials.
Resilient pads of
natural or man-made fibers.
horizontal panels are assembled on three specimen holders, using the UFAC
Standard Type I mattress ticking as the cover fabric. A lighted cigarette is
placed in the crevice formed by the abutment of the vertical and horizontal
panels in each test assembly, and is covered by sheeting fabric. The
cigarettes are allowed to burn their full lengths unless an obvious ignition
occurs. Test observations are recorded. A minimum of three test specimens is
required for each sample tested.
Continuous, self-sustaining smoldering combustion of upholstered furniture
substrates after exposure to burning cigarettes.
IGNITION: Pronounced continuous and self-sustaining combustion of the
test system. Determination is a matter of operator judgment based upon
experience in this type of testing.
Slab or garneted filling/padding material being tested.
Individual piece of sample used in one test assembly.
of fabric which is destroyed or degraded from face to back, not including
the area which is only discolored by smoke.
V. TEST MATERIALS
SOURCE: The ignition source for all tests shall be cigarettes without
filter tips made from natural tobacco, 85 ± 2 mm (3.3 ± 0.1 in) long and
with a packing density of 0.27 ± 0.02g/cm3 (0.16 ± 0.01 oz/in3) and a
total weight of 1.1 ± 0.1 g (0.039 0.004 oz).
April 1, 1990
MATERIAL: 100% cotton bed sheeting material, weight 125 ± 28 g/m2 (3.7
0.8 oz/yd2), white in color, and not treated with flame retardants, shall
be used to cover test cigarettes. For testing, the fabric is cut into
squares 127 x 127 mm (5.0 x 5.0 in).
Cover fabric shall be 100% cotton mattress ticking conforming to federal
specification CCC-C-436E, cloth, ticking, twill, cotton: UFAC Standard
Type I fabric. It shall be laundered and tumble-dried once before using.
The method of laundering shall be the UFAC Standard Method of
Laundering--1990. This material can be obtained from several commercial
The test room shall be draft protected and equipped with a suitable system
for exhausting smoke and noxious gases produced during testing.
EXTINGUISHER: A pressurized water fire extinguisher or other suitable
fire safety equipment shall be immediately available in the test room.
AND WATER BUCKET: A water bottle fitted with a spray nozzle shall be
provided to extinguish any ignited portions of the test apparatus or
components. A water bucket shall be provided for immersing smoldering or
burning materials removed from the test apparatus or components.
linear scale graduated in millimeters or tenths of an inch shall be used
to measure char length.
APPARATUS: In addition to the above enumerated items, straight pins, a
knife or scissors, a staple gun and staples, and tongs are required to
perform the testing.
holder shall consist of two wooden panels, each nominal 203 x 203 mm
(8.0 x 8.0 in) and nominal 19 mm (0.75 in) thickness, joined together at
one edge. As shown in Figure I, a moveable horizontal panel support is
positioned on a centrally located guide.
removable plywood panel nominal 203 x 203 x 19 mm (8.0 x 8.0 x 0.75 in)
is used to support the vertical specimen being tested.
TEST APPARATUS (Click here to
For each sample
of filling/padding material to be tested, cut three specimens 203 x 203
x 51 mm (8.0 x 8.0 x 2.0 in) for the vertical panels and three specimens
127 x 203 x 51 mm (5.0 x 8.0 x 2.0 in) for the horizontal panels. Each
polyurethane foam specimen shall be hand crushed before use by wadding
or balling up one time in the fist, in order to break down any existing
closed cell structure within the foam.
removable vertical support panel, place the vertical pad of test
specimen, followed by one piece of the 305 x 305 mm (12.0 x 12.0 in)
Standard Type I Cover Fabric. Pull the cover fabric around the edge of
the panel and staple it into place on the backside of the panel. Place
each assembled vertical panel in the specimen holder as shown in the
illustration. See Figure III.
horizontal filling/padding specimen with a 203 x 254 mm (8.0 x 10.0 in)
piece of standard cover fabric so that the top surface is completely
covered and the long direction of the fabric continues over the crevice
edge and partially covers the bottom surface. See Figure III. Pin the
cover fabric in place, top and bottom. Place each horizontal panel into
the specimen holder so that a snug fit is obtained between vertical and
PRECAUTIONS: THE GASEOUS PRODUCTS OF SMOLDERING COMBUSTION ARE TOXIC.
LARGE AMOUNTS OF CARBON MONOXIDE AND OTHER NOXIOUS GASES ARE PRODUCED BY
SMOLDERING ORGANIC MATTER. TESTS SHOULD BE CONDUCTED IN A FUME HOOD OR
ROOM PROVIDED WITH ADEQUATE MEANS FOR REMOVAL OF TOXIC FUMES.
April 1, 1990
All test specimens, cover fabrics and test materials (including
polyurethane, cigarettes and sheeting material) shall be conditioned at a
temperature of 21º 3º C (70º ± 4º F) and between 50% and 66% relative
humidity for at least four hours prior to testing. If the test room
conditions do not meet the specifications above for the conditioning room,
then testing must be initiated within ten minutes after the specimens are
removed from the conditioning room.
Zero airflow at the test surface is desirable, indicated by a minimum
vertical smoke plume of 152 mm (6.0 in). A draft-preventive enclosure to
restrict airflow to convection only is required. See Figure II.
specimen holder shall be placed on a table in a draft-free area. Light
three cigarettes and place one cigarette on each of the three test
assemblies such that the cigarette lies in the crevice and against the
vertical panel, equally spaced from each side. Immediately cover the
cigarette with a piece of sheeting material, smoothing it over the
cigarette to insure intimate contact. A finger run over the covered
cigarette insures good fabric-to-cigarette contact. Pin top edge of
sheeting to the vertical panel approximately 50 mm (2.0 in) above the
is allowed to burn its entire length unless an obvious ignition occurs;
otherwise, the test is considered valid when either (1) a cigarette has
burned its entire length on each of the three individual test specimens
or (2) three cigarettes have self-extinguished on the sample. A
self-extinguished cigarette shall be replaced with a freshly lighted
cigarette and covered with sheeting until either (1) or (2) above are
met. Replacement cigarettes shall be located on an uncharred area of the
specimen or on a new test assembly.
If an obvious
ignition occurs on any one of the three specimens, extinguish the
smoldering materials, record the results of the test and test three
If no ignition
occurs, measure the maximum height of the char on the vertical panel
upward from the original crevice to the nearest 2 mm (0.1 in).
After removal of the
sheeting cigarette cover cloth, leave the assembly intact while making char
If all test
specimens have no ignition, or if the vertical char of each is less than
38 mm (1.5 in) upward from the crevice the test material passes.
If one test
specimen has a vertical char equal to or greater than 38 mm (1.5 in), test
three additional specimens.
If all three
additional specimens have vertical char of less than 38 mm (1.5 in), the
additional specimen has a vertical char equal to or greater than 38 mm
(1.5 in), record a failure of the test material.
If two or more
original test specimens have a vertical char of 38 mm (1.5 in) or more,
record a failure of the test material.
This test procedure
is subject to review, modification, and improvement. Please submit any
suggestions, in writing, to:
HIGH POINT, NC 27261
A list of commercial
sources of standard test materials can be obtained from UFAC Central.
April 1, 1990