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TEST METHODS: >> Filling/Padding Component Test Method

FILLING/PADDING COMPONENT TEST METHOD--1990
PART B - FOR FIBROUS OR PARTICULATE MATERIALS

I. BACKGROUND

To participate in the UFAC Voluntary Action Program, upholstered furniture manufacturers must agree to produce their furniture in accordance with the basic UFAC construction criteria. In order to identify component materials which meet the UFAC requirements, a test method is needed to define acceptable performance in each criterion.

II. SCOPE

This test method is designed to determine those fibrous or particulate material constructions which exhibit sufficient resistance to smoldering cigarette ignition to meet the UFAC construction criteria. Such constructions commonly are used for loose or semi-attached backs, arms, or throw pillows. The materials covered by this test method include, but are not limited to:

  1. Staple of natural and man-made fibers.

  2. Shredded foamed or cellular filling materials.

  3. Composites of any of these, together with any protective interliners which may be necessary to meet the requirements of the test method.

III. GENERAL PROCEDURE

Vertical and horizontal panels are assembled on three specimen holders, using the UFAC Standard Type I mattress ticking as the cover fabric. A lighted cigarette is placed in the crevice formed by the abutment of the vertical and horizontal panels in each test assembly, and is covered by sheeting fabric. The cigarettes are allowed to burn their full lengths unless an obvious ignition occurs. Test observations are recorded. A minimum of three test specimens is required for each sample tested.

IV. DEFINITIONS

  1. IGNITION: Continuous, self-sustaining smoldering combustion of upholstered furniture substrates after exposure to burning cigarettes.

  2. OBVIOUS IGNITION: Pronounced continuous and self-sustaining combustion of the test system. Determination is a matter of operator judgment based upon experience in this type of testing.

  3. SAMPLE: Fibrous or particulate filling/padding material being tested.

  4. SPECIMEN: Individual piece of sample used in one test assembly.

  5. CHAR: Area of fabric which is destroyed or degraded from face to back, not including the area which is only discolored by smoke.

V. TEST MATERIALS

  1. IGNITION SOURCE: The ignition source for all tests shall be cigarettes without filter tips made from natural tobacco, 85 ± 2mm (3.3 ± 0.1 in) long and with a packing density of 0.27 ± 0.02 g/cm3 (0.16 ± 0.01 oz./in3) and a total weight of 1.1 ± 0.1 g (0.039 ± 0.004 oz).

April 1, 1990

  1. SHEETING MATERIAL: 100% cotton bed sheeting material, weight 125 ± 28 g/m2 (3.7 ± 0.8 oz/yd2), white in color, and not treated with flame retardants, shall be used to cover test cigarettes. For testing, the fabric is cut into squares 127 x 127 mm (5.0 x 5.0 in).

  2. COVER FABRIC: Cover fabric shall be 100% cotton mattress ticking conforming to federal Specification CCC-C-436E, cloth, ticking, twill, cotton: UFAC Standard Type I fabric. It shall be laundered and tumble-dried once before using. The method of laundering shall be the UFAC Standard Method of Laundering--1990. This material can be obtained from several commercial sources.

  • From the Standard Type I cover fabric cut three pieces 305 x 305 mm (12.0 x 12.0 in) for vertical panels, and three pieces 203 x 254 mm (8.0 x 10.0 in) for horizontal panels.

  1. UFAC STANDARD POLYURETHANE FOAM HORIZONTAL SUBSTRATE: Polyether type polyurethane foam which meets the requirements of UFAC Filling/Padding Component Test Method--1990, Part A, containing no inorganic fillers or flame retardants, having a density of 24 ± 1.6 kg/m3 (1.5 ± 0.1 lb/ft3): UFAC Standard Polyurethane foam. This material can be obtained from several commercial sources.

  • Substrate shall be cut into pieces 127 x 203 x 51 mm (5.0 x 8.0 x 2.0 in) for horizontal panels.

  • Each panel shall be hand crushed before use by wadding or balling up one time in the fist.

  1. TEST ROOM: The test room shall be draft protected and equipped with a suitable system for exhausting smoke and noxious gases produced during testing.

  2. FIRE EXTINGUISHER: A pressurized water fire extinguisher or other suitable fire safety equipment shall be immediately available in the test room.

  3. WATER BOTTLE AND WATER BUCKET: A water bottle fitted with a spray nozzle shall be provided to extinguish any ignited portions of the test apparatus or components. A water bucket shall be provided for immersing smoldering or burning materials removed from the test apparatus or components.

  4. SCALE: A linear scale graduated in millimeters or tenths of an inch shall be used to measure char length.

  5. OTHER APPARATUS: In addition to the above enumerated items, straight pins, a knife or scissors, a staple gun and staples, and tongs are required to perform the testing.

VI. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

  1. TEST APPARATUS:

  • The specimen holder shall consist of two wooden panels, each nominal 203 x 203 mm (8.0 x 8.0 in) and nominal 19 mm (0.75 in) thickness, joined together at one edge. As shown in Figure I, a movable horizontal panel support is positioned on a centrally located guide.

  • A separate removable vertical panel, nominal 203 x 203 x 19 mm (8.0 x 8.0 x 0.75 inches) is used to support the vertical specimen being tested. It shall have been marked on its back surface with a pencil line around all four sides, 12 mm (0.5 in) from each edge.

TEST APPARATUS (Click here to view)

  1. SAMPLE REQUIREMENTS:

  • If an interliner is required for a particulate material, prepare for testing by sewing three knife-edge bags 254 x 254 mm (10.0 x 10.0 in), using the same interior fabric or other interliner material to be used in manufacturing the finished piece of furniture. Each bag is filled with 40 ± 2 grams of test particulate material.

  • If no interliner is required, a quantity of material is used which is sufficient to fill three assembled vertical panels (Para. 3.b. below) to simulate the backs of finished upholstered pieces.

  1. SPECIMEN MOUNTING:

  • If an interliner is required, place a sewn bag test specimen on each removable vertical support panel, covering it with the piece of 305 x 305 mm (12.0 x 12.0 in) Standard Type I Cover Fabric. Pull the cover fabric around the back of each panel and staple into place on all four sides of the panel, matching the fabric edges to the pencil lines 12 mm (0.5 in) from the panel edges.

F/PCTM—1990, PT B
April 1, 1990

  • If no interliner is required, spread the Standard Type I cover fabric directly over the face of each removable vertical support panel. Pull the fabric around to the back of the panel and staple on three sides, matching the fabric edges to the pencil lines 12 mm (0.5 in) from the panel edges. This will create a pocket to be filled with the test specimen. Match the fourth fabric edge to its pencil line and staple.

  • Place each assembled vertical panel in the specimen holder as shown in the illustration. See Figure III.

  • Cover each horizontal standard polyurethane foam substrate piece with a 203 x 254 mm (8.0 x 10.0 in) piece of standard cover fabric so that the top surface is completely covered and the long direction of the fabric continues over the crevice edge and partially covers the bottom surface. See Figure III. Pin the cover fabric in place, top and bottom. Place each horizontal panel into the specimen holder so that it presses against the test specimen panel and a snug fit is obtained between vertical and horizontal panels. Press the horizontal panel against the test specimen panel to create a straight-line crevice at the intersection, 110 ± 2 mm long (4.5 ± 0.5 in). Use a felt-tip device to mark the ends of the crevice.

VII. TEST PROCEDURE

  1. TESTING PRECAUTIONS: THE GASEOUS PRODUCTS OF SMOLDERING COMBUSTION ARE TOXIC. LARGE AMOUNTS OF CARBON MONOXIDE AND OTHER NOXIOUS GASES ARE PRODUCED BY SMOLDERING ORGANIC MATTER. TESTS SHOULD BE CONDUCTED IN A FUME HOOD OR ROOM PROVIDED WITH ADEQUATE MEANS FOR REMOVAL OF TOXIC FUMES.

  2. CONDITIONING: All test specimens, cover fabrics and test materials (including polyurethane, cigarettes and sheeting material) shall be conditioned at a temperature of 21o ± 3oC (70o ± 4o F) and between 50% and 66% relative humidity for at least four hours prior to testing. If the test room conditions do not meet the specifications above for the conditioning room, then testing must be initiated within ten minutes after the specimens are removed from the conditioning room.

  3. AIR VELOCITY: Zero airflow at the test surface is desirable, indicated by a minimum vertical smoke plume of 152 mm (6.0 in). A draft-preventive enclosure to restrict airflow to convection only is required. See Figure II.

  4. CONDUCTING THE TEST:

  • Each loaded specimen holder shall be placed on a table in a draft-free area. Light three cigarettes and place one cigarette on each of the three test assemblies such that the cigarette lies in the crevice and against the vertical panel, equally spaced from each side. Immediately cover the cigarette with a piece of sheeting material, smoothing it over the cigarette to insure intimate contact. A finger run over the covered cigarette insures good fabric-to-cigarette contact. Pin top edge of sheeting to the vertical panel approximately 50 mm (2.0 in) above the cigarette.

  • Each cigarette is allowed to burn its entire length unless an obvious ignition occurs; otherwise, the test is considered valid when either (1) a cigarette has burned its entire length on each of the

  • Three individual test specimens or (2) three cigarettes have self-extinquished on the sample. A self-extinquished cigarette shall be replaced with a freshly lighted cigarette and covered with sheeting until either (1) or (2) above are met. Replacement cigarettes shall be located on an uncharred area of the specimen or on a new test assembly.

  • After the cigarette is consumed, the test fixture is left undisturbed for 30 minutes and monitored for any evolvement of smoke or heat which might occur.

  1. TEST OBSERVATIONS:

  • If an obvious ignition occurs on any of the three specimens, extinguish the smoldering materials, record the results of the test, and test three additional specimens.

  • If there is evolvement of smoke or heat at the end of the 30-minute monitoring period on any of the three specimens, extinguish the smoldering materials. Record the results of the test and test three additional specimens.

F/PCPM—1990, PT B
April 1, 1990

  • If no ignition occurs, measure the maximum height of the char on the vertical panel upward from the original crevice marks to the nearest 2 mm (0.1 in).

VIII. TEST CRITERIA

After removal of the sheeting cigarette cover cloth, leave the assembly intact while making char measurements.

  1. If all test specimens have no ignition, or if the vertical char of each is less than 38 mm (1.5 in) upward from the crevice mark, the test material passes.

  2. If one test specimen has evolvement of smoke or heat or a vertical char equal to or greater than 38 mm (1.5 in), test three additional specimens.

  • If all three additional specimens have no evolvement of smoke or heat or a vertical char of less than 38 mm (1.5 in), the material passes.

  • If one additional specimen has evolvement of smoke or heat or a vertical char equal to or greater than 38 mm (1.5 in), record a failure of the test material.

  1. If two or more original test specimens have evolvement of smoke or heat or a vertical char of 38 mm (1.5 in) or more, record a failure of the test material.

IX. REVIEW

This test procedure is subject to review, modification, and improvement. Please submit any suggestions, in writing, to:

UFAC CENTRAL
BOX 2436
HIGH POINT, NC 27261

A list of commercial sources of standard test materials can be obtained from UFAC Central.

F/PCTM—1990, PT B
April 1, 1990 


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