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TEST METHODS: >> Decorative Trims

UFAC STANDARD TEST METHODS FOR
DECORATIVE TRIMS, EDGING, AND BRUSH FRINGES – 1993

I. BACKGROUND

To participate in the UFAC Voluntary Action Program, upholstered furniture manufacturers must agree to produce their furniture in accordance with the basic UFAC construction criteria. In order to identify component materials which meet the UFAC requirements, a test method is needed to define acceptable performance in each criterion.

II. SCOPE

  1. This test method is intended to classify decorative trim, edging and/or brush fringe which are used in furniture constructions where the decorative trim, edging, or brush fringe are not covered with upholstery fabric. Typical applications of decorative trim, edging, and brush fringe are the outer edges of seat cushions, throw pillows, and other applications such as arm piping, or other decorative piping. This test method and the subsequent UFAC construction criteria are only applicable to those areas of a sofa or chair where lighted cigarettes could become lodged or entrapped if dropped onto the sofa. For example, skirt and skirt trim are not covered by this test method and construction criteria because it is highly unlikely that a cigarette could become lodged or entrapped in these areas.

  2. Decorative trim and edging which is round or elliptical in cross section (similar to the shape of a welt cord) but is used uncovered with upholstery fabric in the furniture construction shall be tested using the STANDARD UFAC WELT CORD test method—using the pass/fail criteria outlined in the welt cord test method. When testing the round or elliptical decorative trim in the Standard UFAC Weld Cord Test Method, do not cover the decorative trim specimen with UFAC Standard Type II fabric. Any flanges on the round or elliptical decorative trim are placed into the crevice created by the abutment of the vertical and horizontal test panels.

All other decorative trim, edging, and brush fringe shall be tested by using the STANDARD UFAC TEST METHOD FOR DECORATIVE FRINGE, EDGING, AND BRUSH FRINGE as described herein.

III. GENERAL PROCEDURE

The decorative trim, edging, or brush fringe shall be placed at the abutment of the horizontal and vertical panels of the small scale test assembly such that the edge, which will be the outer edge in the final sewn construction, is just barely in contact with the vertical panel of the small scale test assembly. (See Figure III.) NOTE: Brush fringe usually contains a ravel cord which is sewn into the brush area of the fringe. This ravel cord shall be removed from the brush fringe prior to any testing.

A lighted cigarette, covered by a piece of sheeting material, is placed on the specimen and against the vertical panel of the test assembly and allowed to burn its entire length, unless an obvious ignition occurs. Char is measured on the vertical panel upward from the crevice. A minimum of three individual specimens is required for each welt cord sample tested. A maximum of six specimens may be required.

September 30, 1993

IV. DEFINITIONS

  1. IGNITION: Continuous, self-sustaining smoldering combustion of upholstered furniture substrates after exposure to burning cigarettes.

  2. OBVIOUS IGNITION: Pronounced continuous and self-sustaining combustion of the test system. Determination is a matter of operator judgment based upon experience in this type of testing.

  3. SAMPLE: Decorative trim, edging, or brush fringe piece being tested.

  4. SPECIMEN: Individual piece of sample used in one test assembly.

  5. CHAR: Area of fabric which is destroyed or degraded from face to back, not including the area which is only discolored by smoke.

  6. UPHOLSTERY WELT: A cord or rope, wrapped and secured into an outer cover, used to define the edge or border of a cushion, pillow, arm, back or other features of a piece of upholstered furniture.

  7. DECORATIVE UPHOLSTERY TRIM, EDGING, OR BRUSH FRINGE: Any product, not wrapped in outer cover, used in a similar application as upholstery welt in a piece of upholstered furniture.

V. TEST MATERIALS

  1. IGNITION SOURCE: The ignition source for all tests shall be cigarettes without filter tips made from natural tobacco, 85 ± 2 mm (3.3 ± 0.1 in) long and with a packing density of 0.27 ± 0.02 g/cm³ (0.16 ± 0.01 oz/in³) and a total weight of 1.1 ± 0.1 g (0.039 ± 0.004 oz).

  2. SHEETING MATERIAL: 100% cotton bed sheeting material, weight 125 ± 28 g/m² (3.7 ± 0.8 oz/yd²), white in color, and not treated with flame retardants, shall be used to cover test cigarettes. For testing, the fabric is cut into squares 127 x 127 mm (5.0 x 5.0 in).

  3. COVER FABRIC: Cover fabric shall be 100% bright regular rayon, scoured, 20/2, ring spun, basket weave construction, 271 ± 12 g/m² (8.0 ± 0.5 oz/yd²): UFAC Standard Type II Cover Fabric. This material can be obtained from several commercial sources.

    From the UFAC Standard Type II cover fabric, cut three 203 x 381 mm (8.0 x 15.0 in) pieces for vertical panels and three 203 x 254 mm (8.0 x 10.0 in) pieces for horizontal panels.

  4. POLYURETHANE FOAM SUBSTRATE: Polyether type polyurethane foam which meets the requirements of the UFAC Filling/Padding Component Test Method—1990 shall be used. The polyurethane foam used shall contain no inorganic fillers or flame retardants, and will have a density of 24.0 ± 1.6 kg/m³ (1.5 ± 0.1 1b/ft³): UFAC Standard Polyurethane Foam. This material can be obtained from several commercial sources.

  • Substrate shall be cut into pieces 203 x 203 x 51 mm (8.0 x 8.0 x 2.0 in) for vertical panels and 127 x 203 x 51 mm (5.0 x 8.0 x 2.0 in) for horizontal panels.

  • Each panel shall be hand crushed before use by wadding or balling up one time in the fist.

  1. GARNETED POLYESTER FIBRE BARRIER MATERIAL: The barrier material used in the UFAC STANDARD TEST FOR DECORATIVE TRIM, EDGING, AND BRUSH FRINGE test method shall be a garneted polyester fiber which weighs 600 g/m² ± 5% (2 oz/ft² ± 5%). The garneted polyester fiber shall be cut to the same size as the cover fabric in number 3 above. When used in the test procedure, the barrier material will be wrapped around the polyurethane foam substrate used on both the horizontal and vertical panels of the small-scale test assembly. After wrapping the barrier material around the polyurethane foam substrate, the barrier material is then covered with the UFAC Standard Class II fabric before final assembly of the test assembly.

  2. TEST ROOM: The test room shall be draft protected and equipped with a suitable system for exhausting smoke and noxious gases produced during testing.

  3. FIRE EXTINGUISHER: A pressurized water fire extinguisher or other suitable fire safety equipment shall be immediately available in the test room.

  4. WATER BOTTLE AND WATER BUCKET: A water bottle fitted with a spray nozzle shall be provided to extinguish any ignited portions of the test apparatus or components. A water bucket shall be provided for immersing smoldering or burning materials removed from the test apparatus or components.

DTTM--1993
September 30, 1993

  1. SCALE: A linear scale graduated in millimeters or tenths of an inch shall be used to measure char length.

  2. OTHER APPARATUS: In addition to the above enumerated items, straight pins, a knife or scissors, a staple gun and staples, and tongs are required to perform the testing.

VI. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

  1. TEST APPARATUS:

The specimen holder shall consist of two wooden panels, each nominal 203 x 203 mm (8.0 x 8.0 in) and nominal 19 mm (0.75 in) thickness, joined together at one edge. As shown in Figure I, a moveable horizontal panel support is positioned on a centrally located guide.

TEST APPARATUS (Click here to view)

  1. SAMPLE REQUIREMENTS:

Three 203 mm (8.0 in) specimens of decorative upholstery trim, edging, or brush fringe are required for each sample tested.

  1. SPECIMEN MOUNTING:

  • Vertical panels shall be prepared for test by wrapping a 203 x 203 x 51 mm (8.0 x 8.0 x 2.0 in) piece of polyurethane with a 203 x 381 mm (8.0 x 15.0 in) piece of UFAC Standard Type II Cover Fabric as shown in Figure III. Straight pins shall be used to attach the cover fabric to the polyurethane substrate.

  • Horizontal panels shall be prepared by wrapping a 127 x 203 x 51 mm (5.0 x 8.0 x 2.0 in) polyurethane panel with the 203 x 254 mm (8.0 x 10.0 in) cover fabric around one edge as shown in Figure III. Straight pins shall be used to attach the cover fabric to the polyurethane substrate.

  • The vertical panel is placed in the test apparatus and the wrapped edge of the horizontal panel is placed against it. The decorative trim, edging, or brush fringe shall be placed at the abutment of the horizontal and vertical panels of the small scale test assembly such that the edge, which will be the outer edge in the final sewn construction, is just barely in contact with the vertical panel of the small scale test assembly. (See Figure III.)

  • When used in the test procedure, the barrier material will be wrapped around the polyurethane foam substrate used on both the horizontal and vertical panels of the small-scale test assembly. After wrapping the barrier material around the polyurethane foam substrate, the barrier material is then covered with the UFAC Standard Class II fabric before final assembly of the test assembly.

VII. TEST PROCEDURE

  1. TESTING PRECAUTIONS: THE GASEOUS PRODUCTS OR SMOLDERING COMBUSTION ARE TOXIC. LARGE AMOUNTS OF CARBON MONOXIDE AND OTHER NOXIOUS GASES ARE PRODUCED BY SMOLDERING ORGANIC MATTER. TESTS SHOULD BE CONDUCTED IN A FUME HOOD OR ROOM PROVIDED WITH ADEQUATE MEANS FOR REMOVAL OF TOXIC FUMES.

  2. CONDITIONING: All test specimens, cover fabrics and test materials (including polyurethane, cigarettes and sheeting material) shall be conditioned at a temperature of 21° ± 3° C (70° ± 4° F) and between 50% and 66% relative humidity for at least four hours prior to testing. If the test room conditions do not meet the specifications above for the conditioning room, then testing must be initiated within ten minutes after the specimens are removed from the conditioning room.

  3. AIR VELOCITY: Zero airflow at the test surface is desirable, indicated by a minimum vertical smoke plume of 152 mm (6.0 in). A draft preventive enclosure to restrict airflow to convection only is required. See Figure II.

DTTM--1993
September 30, 1993

  1. CONDUCTING THE TEST:

  • Each loaded specimen holder shall be placed on a table in the draft-preventive enclosure. Light three cigarettes and place one cigarette on each of the three test assemblies such that the cigarette lies in the crevice, on top of the trim piece being tested, and against the vertical panel, equally spaced from each side. Immediately cover the cigarette with a piece of sheeting material, smoothing it over the cigarette to insure intimate contact. A finger run over the covered cigarette insures good fabric-to-cigarette contact. Pin top edge of sheeting to the vertical panel approximately 50 mm (2.0 in) above the cigarette.

  • Each cigarette is allowed to burn its entire length unless an obvious ignition occurs; otherwise, the test is considered valid when either (1) a cigarette has burned its entire length on each of the three individual test specimens or (2) three cigarettes have self-extinguished on the sample. A self-extinguished cigarette shall be replaced with a freshly lighted cigarette and covered with sheeting until either (1) or (2) above are met. Replacement cigarettes shall be located on an uncharred area of the specimen or on a new test assembly.

  1. TEST OBSERVATIONS:

  • If an obvious ignition occurs on any one of the three specimens, extinguish the smoldering materials, record the results of the test, and test three additional specimens.

  • If no ignition occurs, measure the maximum height of the char on the vertical panel upward from the original crevice to the nearest 2 mm (0.1 in).

VIII. TEST CRITERIA

After removal of the sheeting cigarette cover cloth, leave the assembly intact while making char measurements.

  1. If all test specimens have no ignition, or if the vertical char of each is less than 38mm (1.5 in) upward from the crevice, the test material passes.

  2. If one test specimen has a vertical char equal to or greater than 38mm (1.5 in), test three additional specimens.

  • If all three additional specimens have a vertical char of less than 38 mm (1.5 in) the test material passes.

  • If one additional specimen has a vertical char equal to or greater than 38 mm (1.5 in) record a failure of the test material.

  1. If two or more original test specimens have a vertical char of 38 mm (1.5 in) or more, record a failure of the test material.

  2. If the decorative trim, edging, or brush fringe passes criteria in Section VIII, 1-3 above, the decorative trim, edging, or brush fringe will be classified as UFAC TYPE I and UFAC hang tags may be affixed to upholstered furniture using TYPE I decorative trim, edging, or brush fringe—provided the remainder of the upholstered furniture meets UFAC construction criteria.

  3. If the decorative trim, edging, or brush fringe fails criteria Section VIII, 1-3 above, the same decorative trim, edging, or brush fringe shall be tested using the STANDARD UFAC POLYESTER FIBER BARRIER under the STANDARD UFAC TYPE II FABRIC. The criterion for judging pass/fail using the STANDARD UFAC POLYESTER FIBER BARRIER shall be the same criteria stated in Section VIII, 1-3 above.

  4. If the decorative trim, edging, or brush fringe then passes using the STANDARD UFAC POLYESTER FIBER BARRIER, the decorative trim, edging, or brush fringe shall be classified as UFAC TYPE II, and UFAC hang tags may be used on such furniture only as long as a garneted polyester fiber barrier is used in the upholstered furniture construction which may come into contact with the decorative trim, edging, or brush fringe. The remainder of the upholstered furniture construction must also meet the UFAC construction criteria before UFAC hangtags may be used.

  5. If the decorative trim, edging, or brush fringe fails with both the TYPE II fabric alone and the TYPE II fabric and STANDARD UFAC POLYESTER FIBER BARRIER, the decorative trim, edging, or brush fringe shall be classified as TYPE III. UFAC labels are not permitted with upholstered furniture using TYPE III decorative trim, edging, or brush fringe.

DTTM--1993
September 30, 1993

IX. REFERENCES

  • UFAC Barrier Test Method, 1990

  • UFAC Fabric Classification Test Method, 1990

  • UFAC Standard Method of Laundering, 1990

  • UFAC Filling/Padding Component Test Method, 1990, Parts A & B

  • UFAC Welt Cord Test Method, 1990

  • UFAC Interior Fabrics Test Method, 1990

  • UFAC Construction Criteria, 1990

X. REVIEW

This test procedure is subject to review, modification, and improvement. Please submit any suggestions, in writing, to:

UFAC CENTRAL
BOX 2436
HIGH POINT NC 27261

A list of commercial sources of standard test materials can be obtained from UFAC Central. 


[ Fabric Classification | Interior Fabrics | Barrier Test | Decking Materials ]
[ Filling / Padding Component : Part A | Filling / Padding Component : Part B ]
[ Decorative Trims | Welt Cord | Standard Method of Laundering | Materials Specifications ]
[ Standard Methods of Tests ]